Yes, new in 1.6 (currently in Beta) is Shape.pathPattern, which lets you draw a GraphObject repeatedly along the path (stroke) of a Shape.
For “distante” set Shape.strokeDashArray.
For “separados” use a link label with an opaque background that is the same as the Div’s background.
For the others you must use version 1.6. See the Relationships sample, http://gojs.net/beta/samples/relationships.html.